MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT BABOONS

hqdefault

Given that no other animal on earth (besides humans) drinks milk after being weaned, it is bizarre that farmers complain of baboons stealing milk from dairy cows. More and more humans are accepting that milk is an unnatural food source that is often the cause of allergies. Why would a wild primate want milk from a domestic cow?  

 

“Unlike dogs and cats, baboons are not natural carnivores and they do not have adaptations for hunting and eating meat.” Those of us who live in the world of wild primates are all too familiar with the common misconceptions that abound.

 So, why do farmers still claim, “baboons attack livestock to get milk”, or to eat.  Firstly, it is a common mistake for farmers to blame primates for crimes they didn’t commit because primates are diurnal hence farmers see them often while the real culprits – true predators – generally attack at night. To get some perspective on how distorted this misconception is, one can Google: “baboons attacking livestock”. We welcome any photographic information that challenges this view.

 

 

Below are some things we’ve heard people say about baboons in South Africa….and some answers based on current scientific knowledge.


Look at those long teeth – they must be for hunting prey.

Unlike dogs and cats, baboons are not natural carnivores and they do not have adaptations for hunting and eating meat. The long canine teeth you see on a male baboon are instead adaptations for male-male competition; males use these teeth to fight with other males and gain access to females. More commonly, males do not even have to use their teeth: they simply display them to other males in an open-mouthed threat or yawn, which serves as a signal to other males to stay away.

Baboons do occasionally hunt and eat small animals such as hares and lizards, but such foods comprise only a very small portion of their diet, which includes virtually everything (i.e., they are ‘omnivores’).  For more on baboon diets, see the Baboon Ecology page.

Also keep in mind that there are other animals, such as cats, snakes, and raptors, that habitually prey on birds, birds’ eggs, and other small animals. These animals, unlike baboons, are natural predators and are much better than baboons at locating and catching prey.

 


Look at those long teeth – I’d better watch out!

Baboons are not natural predators and thus would not normally attack a human unless threatened in some way. Examples of this would be if a baboon is made to feel trapped (e.g., inside a house with no escape route), if a person tries to take something away from a baboon (e.g., food), or if a person gets between an adult baboon and its infant. A baboon may also feel threatened if you look at it directly in the eyes, as baboons use direct eye contact to threaten one another.

 


Look at those long teeth – he’s out to get my pet!

A baboon will not normally attack a dog or cat unless it feels threatened in some way.  For example, a baboon may react aggressively if the dog lunges at or attacks the baboon, if the dog gets between an adult baboon and its infant, or if the baboon is made to feel trapped (e.g., inside a house with no escape route).  With small dogs and cats, it is possible that the baboon may perceive it as prey – as baboons do sometimes hunt and eat small mammals such as hares and small antelope. So, best to keep your pets away from baboons.  For more information, see the Baboons and Dogspage.

 


We see more baboons around, so their population size must be increasing.

In greatest likelihood, you see more baboons around you because the baboons in the area where you live are (a) gradually losing their fear of humans while (b) discovering how easy it is to gain access to human foods. These are psychological and behavioural changes in the baboons as a response to their interactions with humans. The baboons have formed a mental association between humans and easily-acquired food and have learned that they need not fear humans but can instead get food from them! This occurs because some people (particularly tourists) feed baboons and the baboons that do raid are not being stopped from doing so. Over time, the baboons will spend more and more of their time near people awaiting a free meal unless they learn that those free meals are no longer available.

As a result of these changes, we see the baboons around more often and naturally come to the conclusion that there are more of them in the population. The most likely scenario, however, is that there are just more of them near us because that’s where they get the best food!

Note: for some basic information on how fast baboons reproduce, see the Baboon Reproduction page.

 


Baboons are becoming bolder and more aggressive.

Baboons are not naturally aggressive towards humans and will usually only show aggression if you trap them or try to take something away from them. Baboons are wild animals and, like most wild animals, are naturally afraid of humans! The increased aggression and boldness of baboons that we perceive simply reflects a decreased fear of humans combined with an increased opportunity for free food. As stated above, these are psychological and behavioural changes occurring in the baboons themselves as they learn that humans are a source of easily-acquired food at the same time that they discover that there is no reason to fear humans. if humans and baboons are to co-exist peacefully then we must try to reverse or at least slow down this process as much as possible. To do this, we must (1) remove these opportunities for free food (i.e., decrease the attractants) and (2) increase the baboons’ fear of humans (i.e., use effective deterrents and never feed or approach baboons!).  For more information, see the Causes of Commensalism page.

 


Baboons are competing with humans for territory.

A territory is an area that animals defend against other members of their own species. Unlike many other primates, such as chimpanzees for example, baboons are NOT territorial. Rather, each baboon troop occupies a ‘home range’, part of which overlaps with the home range of other troops. Usually different troops avoid using these overlapping areas at the same time, and troops and home ranges shift fluidly in accordance with one another. (Thus, if humans encroach upon the home range of one troop, this can affect that troop’s relationship with other troops as well as the home ranges of all other troops in the area.) When baboon troops fight, it is usually over a food resource, over a sleeping site, or it is related to male-male competition over females and/or attempted infanticide – it is not over territories.

Baboons are opportunistic and will take food from our properties if it is available. This will occur whether or not our property is (or was) within the home range of that troop. We may think that we can keep baboons away by ‘showing them’ that this is ‘our’ territory. This is pointless, as a baboon couldn’t care less whose territory it is – it just wants the food!

Expanding human populations results in increased overlap between baboons and humans. This, combined with the natural flexibility of baboons, means that instead of ‘moving out’ of their original home range or simply dying off, a baboon troop may instead simply adapt its behaviour to this increased contact. As baboons lose their fear of humans (sometimes as a result of interactions with tourists and/or deliberate provisioning of baboons by humans), they become more and more willing to exploit the human-derived food resources they see as readily available to them and they start helping themselves to the food they find in gardens, homes, and cars with little or no regard for the humans who may be nearby.

For more information on keeping baboons out of “your” territory, see the Baboons and Your Property page.

 


Baboons mark their territories, and we can ‘fight back’ by marking ours.

Many animals mark their territories with urine or other bodily fluids, leaving a scent that is detectable by other animals. Baboons do not do this. There are two issues to consider here:

1. Baboons are not territorial (see above).

2. In the monkey and ape species that are territorial, vocalizations are used most often to defend territories, NOT scent-marking.

All monkeys and apes, like humans, use visual and vocal communication far more than the sense of smell. Monkeys and apes do not have the rhinarium (wet nose) that dogs and cats have, and without this feature they have to get very close to something to smell it. Many people assume that baboons have a keen sense of smell because of their dog-like face, but in fact their sense of smell is not very different from our own!

 


Lone baboon males are ‘rogue males’ that have been rejected by their troop and are out to cause trouble.

Male baboons typically leave the troops in which they were born and move into new troops to reproduce. Some males do this two or more times during their lifetime. This process of group transfer, called dispersal, may start when a male is a young subadult (i.e., not yet full body size, canine teeth not yet fully developed), at which point he may leave his natal troop and join other troops on a temporary basis while he decides which troop to ultimately immigrate into. We thus sometimes see male baboons wandering around alone during this dispersal process, which may last several months or more.  For more information about dispersal in baboons, see the Dispersal and Philopatry page.

Unfortunately, some of these dispersing males do ‘get into trouble,’ as it is much easier for a lone male baboon to slip into the urban area and enter buildings looking for food without being seen than for an entire troop to do so! These males are often viewed as ‘sneaky’ because they enter buildings silently. This probably has nothing to do with the baboon deliberately trying to hide from humans. Rather, it is likely because the baboon is alone, surrounded by members of another species that he is naturally afraid of, and without any other baboons around to communicate with!

Also unfortunate is the situation in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa where dispersing males often end up stuck in urban areas because they are trying to disperse across them – but there is simply too much urban sprawl in the way for them to be able to reach new troops.

 


The alpha male baboon leads the troop.

Baboon troops are held together by kinship bonds among related females, who typically stay their entire lives in the troop in which they were born. These females are organized into matrilines, with each female that is born ranking in a dominance hierarchy just below her mother. The oldest females in the troop are the ‘matriarchs’, and they have been in the troop the longest and have acquired the most knowledge. Male baboons, by contrast, leave their natal troops and disperse to new troops one or more times in their lives. Males fight for dominance amongst themselves, and there is invariably an ‘alpha male’ of the troop, but his alpha status may be short-lived and he may not have been in the troop for very long. Thus it is the females, especially the oldest females, that hold the troop together, that know the most about local resources, and that probably contribute the most to the troop’s movement patterns.  For more information on kinship bonds and sociality in baboons, see the Baboon Sociality page.

 


Content on this page contributed by:
Larissa Swedell
Julian Saunders
Thanks to the following reviewers for improving this page:
Dr. Jessica Rothman
Dr. Angela van Doorn
Dr. Janette Wallis
Dr. Kirsten Wimberger

Please credit this website for any and all use of this material.

Advertisements

Re-directed Aggression – The Primate Way

Image

TAU – THE SURVIVOR:

A young baboon of 3 years old has been confirmed to be shot by a high calibre fire arm after being treated by local vet Magdalena Braum of Tenikwa Wildlife Awareness and Rehabilitation Centre. The bullet entered from the back of the shoulder, shattered the bone, then entered and exited his opposite hand.

The baboon had managed to keep up with his troop for about ten days in spite of his agonizing, extensive injuries until Thursday morning, the 10th of October when he stayed alone in the forest while his companions left for their daily foraging route.

Around 10 am, the wild baboons arrived at the Darwin Primate Group. My concern magnified as I imagined him dying alone – either slowly or with the aid of a predator –  somewhere in the vast forest that surrounds us.  Thankfully, my cell phone rang as this thought crossed my mind; Sharon Armour who lives on a nearby farm had read about the case online and had noticed the injured baboon outside her home.

Without this fortunate twist of events, he may never have received the help he needed.

I found him weakened –  hidden in thick bush –  when he called for his troop, then sat with him for nearly an hour while we waited for assistance from Jared Harding and Magdalena Braum who kindly took off some time from their demanding work schedule to ensure the juvenile survived.

palmhand

Photo: Jared Harding

Ex-rays showed that  a bullet had penetrated the baboon’s hand, then journeyed in and out of the opposite shoulder, shattering the bone. This is the fourth high profile victim from our wild, resident baboon troop since June 2013

The question that strikes me is; does this point to an act of redirected aggression by a human primate or is it mere “co-incidence”?

Re-directed aggression is practiced commonly amongst indigenous wild primates. Human primates however are reputedly capable of controlling their primal drives as a result of being “civilised” and “humanised”.

DOUG, MATT AND PACINO – MISSING IN ACTION:

Almost a month has passed since I last saw adult male of the wild troop – Pacino – who became well known and loved for his numerous adventures in The Crags, Western Cape. Pacino and Bud had settled into a mutual friendship with Pacino finally accepting Bud’s alpha status after many months of conflict. Although there is a slight chance that Pacino had decided to disperse, the dynamics of this troop had shown no sign of that being an option.(https://darwinprimategroup.wordpress.com/2013/02/15/pacino-life-of-a-dispersing-male/)

Pacino had sought out help for various injuries at the Darwin Primate Group on numerous occasions during the years. And because this troop are persecuted by residents in the area, they have come to regard the DPG as a safe haven to visit at times of need.

Some of Pacino‘s injuries that we helped him survive during the last year:

1beae-pacsnarenovPacino with a snare around his neck outside my home. 

847b1-pacino-001

Pacino undergoes a three hour operation after suffering injuries to his arm during a fight with alpha male, Bud.

ae62d-pachomesnarePacino leaves the trap once we return home from the vet.

1044108_609666599053025_1659545364_nPacino lying down at the DPG in obvious pain after his ribs were pierced during a fight with Bud.

998356_615653365121015_1037058337_nPacino recovers for a week at Tenikwa after Dr Braum treats his injuries.

1094506_10201626220958813_1808801371_oBud showing off his weapons

Pacino’s mysterious disappearance – during September 2013 – followed his close friend – Matt’s – alleged death. We were notified by a witness that Matt had been shot while running across a field. He was accompanied by Pacino at the time. Matt’s disappearance occurred soon after  we publicized the brutal killing of his closest friend Doug who had died in an unspeakably cruel manner during June 2013.  Doug had been lured into a chicken cage, stabbed to death with sticks and then eaten according to witness reports.

matt (2)

Photo: Anna Wood

Adorable Matt poses for volunteer, Anna Wood. June, 2013.

Since May 2012, when an article appeared in the Huffington Post after   local police had been approached about the regular gun shots fired by neighbors, the Darwin Primate Group has been the target of anti-baboon residents in the area as can be seen in this blog: https://darwinprimategroup.wordpress.com/farmers-vs-wildlife/

On the 8th October, soon after I arrived home, the wild troop of baboons slowly made their way onto the property..

I quickly scanned the familiar faces to check everyone was okay. Ah-ah-ah-ahah!! An unmistakable anxiety-ridden voice expressing intense physical pain was coming from the bush.  A young juvenile looked straight at me from behind a rotting yellow wood.

I crept closer, anticipating yet another injury.

Uncharacteristically, he lifted himself on to his back legs and moved off –  upright – with one arm swinging in an uncontrolled manner.

I followed until he sat down, he looked at me crying, his eyes pleading. oct8

oct82

Creeping closer, I noticed that one hand appeared to be shattered. The wound on the opposite shoulder was bloodied and hard to see clearly.

Lying down on the ground in a futile attempt to get closer, I called Tenikwa Awareness and Rehabilitation Centre who kindly sent their vet – Dr Magdalena Braum –  to dart the suffering juvenile. But when Dr Braum arrived the baboons, recognising the dart gun, moved off into deep forest.

We followed for some hours, then were forced to accept the young juvenile had no intention of leaving the safety of thick foliage. Hoping he would arrive the next day, and agreeing to be on call, Dr Braum left.

Relieved to see my young friend the following day sitting right outside my home, I lay down a few metres away on the grass and tried to reassure him while he once again expressed the pain he felt. This time I was close enough to recognise him as one of the juvenile males I’d named Tau. Having witnessed quite a few of the individuals in this troop come to us for help through the years, after being injured, it certainly seemed as if Tau was asking the same.houseTau arrives with the troop – 9th October, 2013oct9Tau exhibiting a facial expression and vocalisation I have come to associate with extreme pain.

Using various baboon strategies to convey my loyalty, while deterring other baboons away from us, he slowly began to visibly relax. He even shifted closer then lay  in front of me where I could get a clear view of both the hand and shoulder wounds. 9 octJust as I’d decided to call Magdalena the vet, the troop moved on, slipping one by one into the forest. Hours later, I could still hear their voices in the distance and assumed they would be sleeping close by for the night. I spent that night periodically waking up wondering how he was coping, wondering if he was capable of sitting with his allies in a high tree, if that was where they were sleeping for this night. After all, he no longer had the use of his hands…….himTau – innocent juvenile with his whole life ahead of him before his destiny was permanently altered by a gun toting neighbor.

Link

CLICK ON THE LINK BELOW:

Farmers vs Wildlife – the Plight of SA Primates

Farmers vs Wildlife and the Plight of SA Primates

Link

Paintings by Karin Saks - B.A.F.A.

LINK TO PRESENTATION – CLICK BELOW:

Harmonious Co-existence between Humans and Baboons/Monkeys

We’ve altered their lives drastically by encroaching on their territory. We’ve destroyed habitats and have severely damaged troop structures.

This presentation (click on the link above) is for residents who would like to co-exist peacefully with the baboons and/or monkeys around their homes.My neighboring baboons - BEHAVIOUR and power struggles.

Freedom – Just Another Word for Nothing Left to Lose

Image

Species Persecuted in South AfricaA Glimpse into the Plight of The Persecuted Baboon and Monkey Populations in South Africa

ABOVE – SOME OF THE SPECIES PERSECUTED IN SOUTH AFRICA DUE TO HUMAN/WILDLIFE CONFLICT:

Comments on the Primate Populations in the Western Cape

Karin Saks The following comments are based on my experience as someone who works towards co-existence between residents, the Vervet Monkey and Chacma Baboon in The Crags/Plettenberg Bay/Knysna area. The vervet monkey and chacma baboon are listed on the hunting list based on the assumption that these populations are plentiful; it is widely believed that they are commonly seen and are therefore healthy. This view does not take the damage done to troop structures into consideration but regards these highly social species in terms of numbers only, without any regard to the dependance they have on a healthy social system. Except for the Cape Peninsula, these populations are not monitored and assumptions are made on outdated data. As the chacma baboon and vervet monkey are not considered to be venison, their presence on the hunting list needs to be questioned. My experience with wild baboons has shown that they are not born with a fear of humans but learn this from their elders who have developed a fear through interacting with humans. Humans are not considered to be natural predators to wild primates and because of the fact that we share primate genes, they are prone to getting close to humans when sharing a territory. This makes them highly vulnerable to being hunted at close range and is a factor that illustrates that shooting a baboon or monkey is devoid of any sport that could be beneficial to the hunter. Considering these observations, the question remains: why are the vervet monkey and chacma baboon listed on the hunting proclamation at all? Is this a legal loophole that makes provision to allow the persecution of these species as “problem animals” and if so how does that interfere with their classification as “protected” species under CITES?

“So heart broken this morning – our precious little Lilly, who was so abused by village people died last night. We did everything we could to save her. I really hate those people, may God forgive me for that feeling, but at this stage, I am so angry, so very angry!!!” K. Hickley – caretaker

DOUG: FIVE YR OLD WILD MALE TORTURED TO DEATH IN THE CRAGS – JUNE 2013

It must have happened about a month ago: Doug, a five year old male in the wild troop went missing. Our search led to a tragic conclusion: he'd allegedly been lured into a cage, then stabbed to death with a stick. His corpse was then prepared to be eaten. RIP my beautiful friend......... Photo of Doug by Anna Wood

AFFADAVIT The affidavit above was written by a witness who has spent over thirty years living on the property owned by the farmer. This witness has allegedly seen many baboons killed while growing up on this property. He claims that baboon corpses are allegedly often taken to the local village where the flesh gets consumed and the fur gets used to make carpets. These actions of the farmer set an unethical – and unspeakably cruel  – example for the employees on his property. doug rh 11

ABOVE – DOUG IN 2011

Feb 2013 Doug who was brutally killed by a farm worker in June.

After we trapped a severely injured wild troop member in February, Doug visited daily to check on his close friend while we healed him.

In a wild primate troop a cohesive,social system is necessary to the healthy working of the whole group. When thisfragile system is disrupted, it impacts not only on members within the group but all symbiotic relationships within the environment.

Robert Sapolsky – neurologist and primatologist – who has done extensive research into the effects of stress on baboons in Kenya, claims that; “the blood levels of cortisol (also known as hydrocortisone), one of the hormones most reliably secreted during stress, rose significantly” amongst a troop of baboons, when a new male baboon moved into the troop.  At the same time, “their numbers of white bloodcells, or lymphocytes, the centinel cells of the immune system that defend thebody against infections, declined markedly, another highly reliable index ofstress.” He also found that high levels of stress amongst transfer males hadcompromised their immune systems, leaving them unusually vulnerable toparasites and other diseases.(The Trouble with Testosterone by Robert Sapolsky,p81, 85) We can deduce from these observations that when humans interfere with troop structures by eliminating a male leader for example, this results in a higher turnover of alpha males which in turn leads to turbulent troop relationships and a break down in social dynamics. High levels of stress at a consisent level brought about by humans shooting key individuals that are integral to familial or friendship groups within the framework of a highly complex primate social system, will impact negatively on the group’s ability to function as a healthy cohesive whole. We can also deduce from this that an unhealthy primate troop will impact negatively on all related systems and would therefore not be contributing to a healthy bio-diversity. CARINACarina Cunningham Webber – a vervet monkey sanctuary owner – with a wild vervet troop who were all killed without challenge by a resident in her area. The three areas most commonly targeted that interfere with the natural processes necessary for troop cohesion are:  1. Dispersing male monkeys and baboons are often targeted by residents  

  1. Alpha male, wrongly believed to be the sole decision maker in the troop is shot for acting on behalf of the whole group.

 

  1.  Because of the demand of vervet monkey babies in the pet industry, adult female monkeys are often shot.

Due to the fragile, cohesive social system necessary for healthy troop structures, the above practices not only cause disruption to thegroup but also have a permanent effect on future generations. Vervet Monkey populations between Mossel Bay and Stormsriver appear to be damaged. Residents report the disappearance of whole troops. It is no longer common to sight these animals and troops – more oftenthan not – contain too few individuals (often under five). With fewer troopsaround, dispersing males have further to travel, at great risk, to find newtroops to move into. Baboon troops often exhibit an unhealthy skew in the adult male to female ratio as males are most often targeted by humans.

MATT: SHOT – AUGUST 2013

Following the wild baboon troop with Matt...

Above: Karin following the resident wild troop with Matt in the foreground. Matt was allegedly shot towards the end of August 2013 by a Crags resident.

mattrh

MATT ABOVE IN 2011
GarethPatterson – “Some field observations on Vervet monkey status and distribution within thestudy area of the Knysna elephant research project 2001 – 2009. Area of Observations.The approximate range of Knysna elephants is an 620 square kilometre area comprising of Afromontane forest, mountain fynbos, forest edge and commercial plantations. Observations were undertaken mostly on foot while gathering elephant diet and DNA samples, and while gathering data on the range of the elephants. Duration May 2001 to September 2009. Vervet monkeys were seen infrequently during the entire study period,despite thousand’s of kilometres undertaken on foot during the above timeframe. Afromontane forest.Vervet monkeys were very rarely seen within the forests itself.When occasionally seen, comprise of small troops of approximately 7- 10 individuals. Occasionally transient males would be seen from time to time on the Knysna -Uniondale road south of Diepwalle. Mountain fynbos.Vervet monkeys very rarely seen in mountain fynbos. Forest edge.Vervet troops were seen mostly in forest edge areas, particulary in areas where streams occur. Sightings were not frequent though. Troop size on average would approximately 7 – 10. Commercial plantations.Vervet troops were very rarely seen in these areas. During deployment of remote camera’s 2007 – 2009 bushbuck and bushpig were fairly frequently photographed. Honey-badger have been photographed occasionally.Caracal have been photographed twice so far this year.During 2007 – 2009 only once have vervet monkey been photographed,one individual, a transient male (September 2009). This occurred close to the forest edge. While undertaking the Knysna elephant research project I was surprised how infrequently vervet monkeys were sighted. Also of concern was the small troop size. Recommendation. Research urgently needs to be undertaken on the status, distribution and genetic diversity (and degree of relatedness) of vervet monkeys in this portion of the Western Cape.”
DIDI – ORPHANED VERVET MONKEY KILLED BY A RESIDENT IN THE CRAGS – 2012
Didi was orphaned in 2007 when a resident killed his mother near Knysna.

Didi was orphaned in 2007 when a resident killed his mother near Knysna.

Didi – Darwin Primate Group Monkey Shot by Crags Resident – Nov 2012:
“One day, hopefully in the near future, I will tell you the whole story about this particular blog post. Right now, my hands are tied, my voice silenced and the threats continue.11th November - RIP Didi...
 Above: hand written affidavit by a man who worked for Didi”s killer (A Jehovah’s witness who Karin has never met or interacted with in person. Prior to Didi’s death, a DPG volunteer had visited the killer’s family to let them know that Didi might visit their property, and the volunteer asked the family to contact the DPG if and when this occurred. When Didi arrived on the killer’s property, he was shot with a pellet gun without hesitation and died a slow, tortuous death according to the witness. The witnesses name has been blacked out to protect his identity as his job is at risk. The killer also threatened to sue us if we made the truth public.
All I can say is that someone shot my very first orphan baby, vervet monkey on the 11th of November, and I am unable to speak out right now because of their threats. The killer – a “religious” man who lives in the same road –  did it intentionally, knowing I’d spent days searching for Didi. Having the choice to call me to get him back to his territory, knowing I was searching for him, they chose instead to kill.”
To read the history behind Karin’s challenges with Crags residents:  https://darwinprimategroup.wordpress.com/2013/03/06/farmers-vs-wildlife-the-crags/
The Integral Role of the Transient Male in Monkey and Baboon Troops: As mentioned before, these males transfer into new groups to ensure genetic mixing while the females stay in their birth troops for life,ensuring a strong female bonded social core. a) The myth of the Rogue Male: Often it is single males that get shot by residents. With every case that I have been called on to investigate in this area, the single male baboon or monkey that has been “raiding’ human foods, has proved to be a dispersing male – usually at the age of puberty and leaving the troop for the very first time – making his way into a new troop. These males are most  to be “old rogue males kicked out of the troop”. In fact, it is rare to see an old male baboon or monkey in this area for few reach old age anymore. Male vervet monkeys and baboons move from their birth troops (about five times in their lifetimes) into new troops. When these malesare shot as is often the case, this necessary natural process is prevented withthe consequences being long term negative effects on the fragile social system needed for a healthy primate troop. In turn, this negatively affects other systems that they have a symbiotic relationship with; including their relationship to humans and the territory we often share. b) The Perspective of the Transient Male: Our biggest mistake in understanding the way in which we contribute to the dysfunction of healthy troop structures is to assume that only the physical impact matters. To ignore the complex psychological components necessary for wild primate species that are based on social relationships, is to deny a crucial element that is integral to a healthy bio-diversity. Pubescent primate males dispersing into new troops do notonly face a temporary time of physical challenge but also one of psychological challenge; for pubescent males, these necessary lessons bring a physical and psychological strength that is not only needed for theindividual but the whole troop in the future. These young males, having left the protection and guidance of their birth group are tested for the first time in many ways.Without the protection of the group, they are exposed to predators and other difficult elements of the wilderness. Not only are they at risk from predatorsbut their new troop is likely to be hostile until the individual has formedbonds – this can take a few months. Sometimes these males are not accepted at all. With all the added unnatural risks these males face due to human intervention, they sometimesironically seek protection in human areas where they have been led to believe they may find it due to humans feeding them by hand. If you consider the monkey troops that have apparentlybeen wiped out in The Crags area (as residents views suggest), this means that dispersing male monkeys are forced to wander abnormally far distances to find another troop, hence risks are increased. These males therefore find themselves trying to survive in unknown territories with strange predators and the challenge of finding new food sources that they had previously relied on the troop to help them with. Sometimes, when life gets this tough for the male that has been forced to wander unnaturally long distances, he will seek protectionin human areas, deluded by that fact that humans are friendly when they invitethese animals in by feeding them. Human areas full of abundant unnatural food sources that also have a scarcity of threatening predators are an obvious attraction for wild primates suffering undue risks. But as these primates have a strong understanding of territorial boundaries, it is the mixed messages that humans themselves give that allow these species to assume they are welcome. In the CapePeninsula, dispersing male baboons are unable to reach new troops as development has cut them off from doing so. Dispersing males are alone; without grooming partners that contribute to their physical and mental health that generally keep parasite infestation at bay. Robert Sapolsky –primatologist and neurologist observed that during this period, the accumulated stress in transient males contributes to parasite infestation as the immune system becomes relatively weak. Once the individual joins a group, his health balances out again. This once again illustrates how fragile a period this isfor dispersing males. As the male is left without troop guidance, he may resort to the temptation of new food sources and enter onto human properties where hewill at first be respectful of the territorial boundaries but once invited in,will push those boundaries and attempt to raid. Puberty is a time ofexploration and learning for these young males who have yet to grasp the fullmaturity needed when adult. As sub-adults, they are also more likely to benaïve about the dangers, humans present. Residents need to practice consistency in their approachto demonstrate that it is unacceptable for wild primates to enter theirproperties. It also helps to have baboon/monkey proof homes and to ensure thatno attractions – especially garbage – are on display. In time, with the resident’s patience, tolerance andunderstanding, the transient male will move on into his new group and if he haslearnt worthwhile lessons (not to push territorial boundaries) from his humanneighbors, he will carry these lessons with him. In this way residents cancontribute to the future of healthy monkey and baboon troops. At present, however, the Hunting Proclamation which allows landowners to shoot two monkeys/baboons a day all year round actively encourages the persecution of these species and therefore contributes to misconceptions and the continuous destruction of troop structures that negatively affects bio-diversity. THIS PIECE OF LEGISLATION GIVES A CLEAR MESSAGE TO THE PUBLIC ABOUT HOW TO TREAT THESE ANIMALS.  The HuntingProclamation gives residents the message that persecuting the Vervet monkey andChacma baboon is not only acceptable but encouraged by the authorities, henceshowing a disregard for the role these species play within the environment.  Shootingthe Alpha Male to deter the troop from Raiding:  Shooting the alpha male does not deter the troop from raiding as has been proved many times in the past. Instead, a new male is likely to move into the troop, kill all the infants and spend many monthsworking out new relationships that bring turbulence and social disruption. When these alpha males are repeatedly killed and replaced, this process occurs moreoften than is natural and has far reaching traumatic consequences for membersin the group. New males that move in from outside the troop do not necessarilybring new lessons but may well follow the lead of the troop, hence the groupwill continue to raid. The most influential males in a troop do not makedecisions on behalf of the whole troop alone, but act according to the will of troop members. With so many male baboons being targeted the result is an unhealthy skew in the adult male to female ratio which in turn causes socialbehaviour changes. Bad WasteManagement is One of the Main Reasons Wildlife is Attracted to Human Areas: TheTargeting of Adult Female Monkeys: Because the Hunting Proclamation actively allows thepersecution of baboons and monkeys, the message given to people is that thesespecies do not matter. As a result widespread abuse occurs. It is difficult to monitor the growing demand for vervet monkey baby pets for example. During the birth season which occurs just before Christmas, copious amounts of adult female monkeys are shot so that their babies can be taken and sold. The Vervet is a female bonded species based on anumber of matrilines. Females stay in their troop for the duration of theirlives; it is the females who have the most knowledge about food sources andpredators within the territory. This information is passed on from onegeneration to the next. These individuals are therefore integral to the knowledge and social health of the troop. Again, shooting individuals in a monkey troop causes dysfunctional social systems that impact on the troop members and future generations. The above examples illustrate to some small extent how the Hunting Proclamation actively destroys wild primate social structures and contributes to a decline in numbers.  Hundredsof Baboons and Monkeys are held in Rehabilitation Centres without Safe Habitats to Release them into: Thereare a number of vervet monkey rescue centres in KZN; Although these centres see a fraction of the amount of monkeys that require rescue, an average month reveals that up to seventy monkeys will die at the most prolific monkey rescue centre in KZN.  The amount of monkeys and baboons injured and killed by humans cannot be underestimated. These primates are certainly the victims of legislation that actively encourages thepersecution of these species and perpetuates the myths about them.  It takes quite a few years to rehabilitate these troops – the biggest problem once rehabilitated, is that there are too few safe habitats to release them into.   Protective legislation that is actively and strongly enforced would bring a solution to this problem.  Widespread Abuse of The Hunting Proclamation: Experience has shown me that the Hunting Proclamation isbeing abused in a number of ways: many landowners tend to turn a blind eye whentheir workers, firstly lure onto the property, then snare or shoot, wild species. In an area wracked by poverty, workers lure wild animals by intentionallyleaving food sources around, whether it be open garbage bins, compost heaps, horse food or other food. This works in the landowner’s best economical interests when the property is a cattle farm or polo field for example. Workers have shown that they lure and kill bushbuck, bushpigs, baboons and monkeys to eat in this area. It is unrealistic to expect that landowners will act responsibly in the best interests of the environment when it is easier to kill and  support personal financial interests. It is equally irresponsible to assume that residents are in a position to make informed decisions about what constitutes a“problem animal” when this perception is usually distorted by unnecessary fear,ignorance of wild primate behaviour and misconceptions supported by legislationsuch as the Hunting Proclamation.  These cases need physical investigation and should be done by those who have the environment/bio-diversity’s best interests at heart.  Listingthe Vervet Monkey and Chacma Baboon on a Hunting List: Neither of these primate species can be considered for sport/recreational hunting as their close proximity to humans makes shootingthem akin to canned hunting. Furthermore, asthese wild primates are not generally considered edible and are geneticallyclose to us, it is entirely nonsensical that they be listed on a hunting list. Taking these factors into account, it becomes quite clearthat the vervet monkey and chacma baboon are listed on a hunting list, andallowed to be killed at two a day, all year round, because it is desired that they be eradicated. In this light their so called “protected” status under theNature Conservation Ordinance, Ordinance 19 of 1974 is redundant. In practice, I have witnessed that the vervet monkey and chacma baboon are offered little – if any –  protection and that the Hunting Proclamation is allowed to be abused and used to the detriment of our wild primate populations.  

https://darwinprimategroup.wordpress.com/2013/08/30/feb-2013-doug/