Freedom – Just Another Word for Nothing Left to Lose

Species Persecuted in South AfricaA Glimpse into the Plight of The Persecuted Baboon and Monkey Populations in South Africa


Comments on the Primate Populations in the Western Cape

 The following comments are based on my experience as someone who works towards co-existence between residents, the Vervet Monkey and Chacma Baboon in The Crags/Plettenberg Bay/Knysna area. The vervet monkey and chacma baboon are listed on the hunting list based on the assumption that these populations are plentiful; it is widely believed that they are commonly seen and are therefore healthy. This view does not take the damage done to troop structures into consideration but regards these highly social species in terms of numbers only, without any regard to the dependance they have on a healthy social system. Except for the Cape Peninsula, these populations are not monitored and assumptions are made on outdated data. As the chacma baboon and vervet monkey are not considered to be venison, their presence on the hunting list needs to be questioned. My experience with wild baboons has shown that they are not born with a fear of humans but learn this from their elders who have developed a fear through interacting with humans. Humans are not considered to be natural predators to wild primates and because of the fact that we share primate genes, they are prone to getting close to humans when sharing a territory. This makes them highly vulnerable to being hunted at close range and is a factor that illustrates that shooting a baboon or monkey is devoid of any sport that could be beneficial to the hunter. Considering these observations, the question remains: why are the vervet monkey and chacma baboon listed on the hunting proclamation at all? Is this a legal loophole that makes provision to allow the persecution of these species as “problem animals” and if so how does that interfere with their classification as “protected” species under CITES?

“So heart broken this morning – our precious little Lilly, who was so abused by village people died last night. We did everything we could to save her. I really hate those people, may God forgive me for that feeling, but at this stage, I am so angry, so very angry!!!” K. Hickley – caretaker


It must have happened about a month ago: Doug, a five year old male in the wild troop went missing. Our search led to a tragic conclusion: he'd allegedly been lured into a cage, then stabbed to death with a stick. His corpse was then prepared to be eaten. RIP my beautiful friend......... Photo of Doug by Anna Wood

AFFADAVIT The affidavit above was written by a witness who has spent over thirty years living on the property owned by the farmer. This witness has allegedly seen many baboons killed while growing up on this property. He claims that baboon corpses are allegedly often taken to the local village where the flesh gets consumed and the fur gets used to make carpets. These actions of the farmer set an unethical – and unspeakably cruel  – example for the employees on his property. doug rh 11


Feb 2013 Doug who was brutally killed by a farm worker in June.
After we trapped a severely injured wild troop member in February, Doug visited daily to check on his close friend while we healed him.

In a wild primate troop a cohesive,social system is necessary to the healthy working of the whole group. When thisfragile system is disrupted, it impacts not only on members within the group but all symbiotic relationships within the environment.

Robert Sapolsky – neurologist and primatologist – who has done extensive research into the effects of stress on baboons in Kenya, claims that; “the blood levels of cortisol (also known as hydrocortisone), one of the hormones most reliably secreted during stress, rose significantly” amongst a troop of baboons, when a new male baboon moved into the troop.  At the same time, “their numbers of white bloodcells, or lymphocytes, the centinel cells of the immune system that defend thebody against infections, declined markedly, another highly reliable index ofstress.” He also found that high levels of stress amongst transfer males hadcompromised their immune systems, leaving them unusually vulnerable toparasites and other diseases.(The Trouble with Testosterone by Robert Sapolsky,p81, 85) We can deduce from these observations that when humans interfere with troop structures by eliminating a male leader for example, this results in a higher turnover of alpha males which in turn leads to turbulent troop relationships and a break down in social dynamics. High levels of stress at a consisent level brought about by humans shooting key individuals that are integral to familial or friendship groups within the framework of a highly complex primate social system, will impact negatively on the group’s ability to function as a healthy cohesive whole. We can also deduce from this that an unhealthy primate troop will impact negatively on all related systems and would therefore not be contributing to a healthy bio-diversity. CARINACarina Cunningham Webber – a vervet monkey sanctuary owner – with a wild vervet troop who were all killed without challenge by a resident in her area. The three areas most commonly targeted that interfere with the natural processes necessary for troop cohesion are:  1. Dispersing male monkeys and baboons are often targeted by residents  

  1. Alpha male, wrongly believed to be the sole decision maker in the troop is shot for acting on behalf of the whole group.


  1.  Because of the demand of vervet monkey babies in the pet industry, adult female monkeys are often shot.

Due to the fragile, cohesive social system necessary for healthy troop structures, the above practices not only cause disruption to thegroup but also have a permanent effect on future generations. Vervet Monkey populations between Mossel Bay and Stormsriver appear to be damaged. Residents report the disappearance of whole troops. It is no longer common to sight these animals and troops – more oftenthan not – contain too few individuals (often under five). With fewer troopsaround, dispersing males have further to travel, at great risk, to find newtroops to move into. Baboon troops often exhibit an unhealthy skew in the adult male to female ratio as males are most often targeted by humans.


Following the wild baboon troop with Matt...

Above: Karin following the resident wild troop with Matt in the foreground. Matt was allegedly shot towards the end of August 2013 by a Crags resident.


GarethPatterson – “Some field observations on Vervet monkey status and distribution within thestudy area of the Knysna elephant research project 2001 – 2009. Area of Observations.The approximate range of Knysna elephants is an 620 square kilometre area comprising of Afromontane forest, mountain fynbos, forest edge and commercial plantations. Observations were undertaken mostly on foot while gathering elephant diet and DNA samples, and while gathering data on the range of the elephants. Duration May 2001 to September 2009. Vervet monkeys were seen infrequently during the entire study period,despite thousand’s of kilometres undertaken on foot during the above timeframe. Afromontane forest.Vervet monkeys were very rarely seen within the forests itself.When occasionally seen, comprise of small troops of approximately 7- 10 individuals. Occasionally transient males would be seen from time to time on the Knysna -Uniondale road south of Diepwalle. Mountain fynbos.Vervet monkeys very rarely seen in mountain fynbos. Forest edge.Vervet troops were seen mostly in forest edge areas, particulary in areas where streams occur. Sightings were not frequent though. Troop size on average would approximately 7 – 10. Commercial plantations.Vervet troops were very rarely seen in these areas. During deployment of remote camera’s 2007 – 2009 bushbuck and bushpig were fairly frequently photographed. Honey-badger have been photographed occasionally.Caracal have been photographed twice so far this year.During 2007 – 2009 only once have vervet monkey been photographed,one individual, a transient male (September 2009). This occurred close to the forest edge. While undertaking the Knysna elephant research project I was surprised how infrequently vervet monkeys were sighted. Also of concern was the small troop size. Recommendation. Research urgently needs to be undertaken on the status, distribution and genetic diversity (and degree of relatedness) of vervet monkeys in this portion of the Western Cape.”
Didi was orphaned in 2007 when a resident killed his mother near Knysna.
Didi was orphaned in 2007 when a resident killed his mother near Knysna.
Didi – Darwin Primate Group Monkey Shot by Crags Resident – Nov 2012:
“One day, hopefully in the near future, I will tell you the whole story about this particular blog post. Right now, my hands are tied, my voice silenced and the threats continue.11th November - RIP Didi...
 Above: hand written affidavit by a man who worked for Didi”s killer (A Jehovah’s witness who Karin has never met or interacted with in person. Prior to Didi’s death, a DPG volunteer had visited the killer’s family to let them know that Didi might visit their property, and the volunteer asked the family to contact the DPG if and when this occurred. When Didi arrived on the killer’s property, he was shot with a pellet gun without hesitation and died a slow, tortuous death according to the witness. The witnesses name has been blacked out to protect his identity as his job is at risk. The killer also threatened to sue us if we made the truth public.
All I can say is that someone shot my very first orphan baby, vervet monkey on the 11th of November, and I am unable to speak out right now because of their threats. The killer – a “religious” man who lives in the same road –  did it intentionally, knowing I’d spent days searching for Didi. Having the choice to call me to get him back to his territory, knowing I was searching for him, they chose instead to kill.”
To read the history behind Karin’s challenges with Crags residents:
The Integral Role of the Transient Male in Monkey and Baboon Troops: As mentioned before, these males transfer into new groups to ensure genetic mixing while the females stay in their birth troops for life,ensuring a strong female bonded social core. a) The myth of the Rogue Male: Often it is single males that get shot by residents. With every case that I have been called on to investigate in this area, the single male baboon or monkey that has been “raiding’ human foods, has proved to be a dispersing male – usually at the age of puberty and leaving the troop for the very first time – making his way into a new troop. These males are most  to be “old rogue males kicked out of the troop”. In fact, it is rare to see an old male baboon or monkey in this area for few reach old age anymore. Male vervet monkeys and baboons move from their birth troops (about five times in their lifetimes) into new troops. When these malesare shot as is often the case, this necessary natural process is prevented withthe consequences being long term negative effects on the fragile social system needed for a healthy primate troop. In turn, this negatively affects other systems that they have a symbiotic relationship with; including their relationship to humans and the territory we often share. b) The Perspective of the Transient Male: Our biggest mistake in understanding the way in which we contribute to the dysfunction of healthy troop structures is to assume that only the physical impact matters. To ignore the complex psychological components necessary for wild primate species that are based on social relationships, is to deny a crucial element that is integral to a healthy bio-diversity. Pubescent primate males dispersing into new troops do notonly face a temporary time of physical challenge but also one of psychological challenge; for pubescent males, these necessary lessons bring a physical and psychological strength that is not only needed for theindividual but the whole troop in the future. These young males, having left the protection and guidance of their birth group are tested for the first time in many ways.Without the protection of the group, they are exposed to predators and other difficult elements of the wilderness. Not only are they at risk from predatorsbut their new troop is likely to be hostile until the individual has formedbonds – this can take a few months. Sometimes these males are not accepted at all. With all the added unnatural risks these males face due to human intervention, they sometimesironically seek protection in human areas where they have been led to believe they may find it due to humans feeding them by hand. If you consider the monkey troops that have apparentlybeen wiped out in The Crags area (as residents views suggest), this means that dispersing male monkeys are forced to wander abnormally far distances to find another troop, hence risks are increased. These males therefore find themselves trying to survive in unknown territories with strange predators and the challenge of finding new food sources that they had previously relied on the troop to help them with. Sometimes, when life gets this tough for the male that has been forced to wander unnaturally long distances, he will seek protectionin human areas, deluded by that fact that humans are friendly when they invitethese animals in by feeding them. Human areas full of abundant unnatural food sources that also have a scarcity of threatening predators are an obvious attraction for wild primates suffering undue risks. But as these primates have a strong understanding of territorial boundaries, it is the mixed messages that humans themselves give that allow these species to assume they are welcome. In the CapePeninsula, dispersing male baboons are unable to reach new troops as development has cut them off from doing so. Dispersing males are alone; without grooming partners that contribute to their physical and mental health that generally keep parasite infestation at bay. Robert Sapolsky –primatologist and neurologist observed that during this period, the accumulated stress in transient males contributes to parasite infestation as the immune system becomes relatively weak. Once the individual joins a group, his health balances out again. This once again illustrates how fragile a period this isfor dispersing males. As the male is left without troop guidance, he may resort to the temptation of new food sources and enter onto human properties where hewill at first be respectful of the territorial boundaries but once invited in,will push those boundaries and attempt to raid. Puberty is a time ofexploration and learning for these young males who have yet to grasp the fullmaturity needed when adult. As sub-adults, they are also more likely to benaïve about the dangers, humans present. Residents need to practice consistency in their approachto demonstrate that it is unacceptable for wild primates to enter theirproperties. It also helps to have baboon/monkey proof homes and to ensure thatno attractions – especially garbage – are on display. In time, with the resident’s patience, tolerance andunderstanding, the transient male will move on into his new group and if he haslearnt worthwhile lessons (not to push territorial boundaries) from his humanneighbors, he will carry these lessons with him. In this way residents cancontribute to the future of healthy monkey and baboon troops. At present, however, the Hunting Proclamation which allows landowners to shoot two monkeys/baboons a day all year round actively encourages the persecution of these species and therefore contributes to misconceptions and the continuous destruction of troop structures that negatively affects bio-diversity. THIS PIECE OF LEGISLATION GIVES A CLEAR MESSAGE TO THE PUBLIC ABOUT HOW TO TREAT THESE ANIMALS.  The HuntingProclamation gives residents the message that persecuting the Vervet monkey andChacma baboon is not only acceptable but encouraged by the authorities, henceshowing a disregard for the role these species play within the environment.  Shootingthe Alpha Male to deter the troop from Raiding:  Shooting the alpha male does not deter the troop from raiding as has been proved many times in the past. Instead, a new male is likely to move into the troop, kill all the infants and spend many monthsworking out new relationships that bring turbulence and social disruption. When these alpha males are repeatedly killed and replaced, this process occurs moreoften than is natural and has far reaching traumatic consequences for membersin the group. New males that move in from outside the troop do not necessarilybring new lessons but may well follow the lead of the troop, hence the groupwill continue to raid. The most influential males in a troop do not makedecisions on behalf of the whole troop alone, but act according to the will of troop members. With so many male baboons being targeted the result is an unhealthy skew in the adult male to female ratio which in turn causes socialbehaviour changes. Bad WasteManagement is One of the Main Reasons Wildlife is Attracted to Human Areas: TheTargeting of Adult Female Monkeys: Because the Hunting Proclamation actively allows thepersecution of baboons and monkeys, the message given to people is that thesespecies do not matter. As a result widespread abuse occurs. It is difficult to monitor the growing demand for vervet monkey baby pets for example. During the birth season which occurs just before Christmas, copious amounts of adult female monkeys are shot so that their babies can be taken and sold. The Vervet is a female bonded species based on anumber of matrilines. Females stay in their troop for the duration of theirlives; it is the females who have the most knowledge about food sources andpredators within the territory. This information is passed on from onegeneration to the next. These individuals are therefore integral to the knowledge and social health of the troop. Again, shooting individuals in a monkey troop causes dysfunctional social systems that impact on the troop members and future generations. The above examples illustrate to some small extent how the Hunting Proclamation actively destroys wild primate social structures and contributes to a decline in numbers.  Hundredsof Baboons and Monkeys are held in Rehabilitation Centres without Safe Habitats to Release them into: Thereare a number of vervet monkey rescue centres in KZN; Although these centres see a fraction of the amount of monkeys that require rescue, an average month reveals that up to seventy monkeys will die at the most prolific monkey rescue centre in KZN.  The amount of monkeys and baboons injured and killed by humans cannot be underestimated. These primates are certainly the victims of legislation that actively encourages thepersecution of these species and perpetuates the myths about them.  It takes quite a few years to rehabilitate these troops – the biggest problem once rehabilitated, is that there are too few safe habitats to release them into.   Protective legislation that is actively and strongly enforced would bring a solution to this problem.  Widespread Abuse of The Hunting Proclamation: Experience has shown me that the Hunting Proclamation isbeing abused in a number of ways: many landowners tend to turn a blind eye whentheir workers, firstly lure onto the property, then snare or shoot, wild species. In an area wracked by poverty, workers lure wild animals by intentionallyleaving food sources around, whether it be open garbage bins, compost heaps, horse food or other food. This works in the landowner’s best economical interests when the property is a cattle farm or polo field for example. Workers have shown that they lure and kill bushbuck, bushpigs, baboons and monkeys to eat in this area. It is unrealistic to expect that landowners will act responsibly in the best interests of the environment when it is easier to kill and  support personal financial interests. It is equally irresponsible to assume that residents are in a position to make informed decisions about what constitutes a“problem animal” when this perception is usually distorted by unnecessary fear,ignorance of wild primate behaviour and misconceptions supported by legislationsuch as the Hunting Proclamation.  These cases need physical investigation and should be done by those who have the environment/bio-diversity’s best interests at heart.  Listingthe Vervet Monkey and Chacma Baboon on a Hunting List: Neither of these primate species can be considered for sport/recreational hunting as their close proximity to humans makes shootingthem akin to canned hunting. Furthermore, asthese wild primates are not generally considered edible and are geneticallyclose to us, it is entirely nonsensical that they be listed on a hunting list. Taking these factors into account, it becomes quite clearthat the vervet monkey and chacma baboon are listed on a hunting list, andallowed to be killed at two a day, all year round, because it is desired that they be eradicated. In this light their so called “protected” status under theNature Conservation Ordinance, Ordinance 19 of 1974 is redundant. In practice, I have witnessed that the vervet monkey and chacma baboon are offered little – if any –  protection and that the Hunting Proclamation is allowed to be abused and used to the detriment of our wild primate populations.


4 Comments Add yours

  1. Jean Marais says:

    September 5, 2013 at 3:38 am

    Lynette Johnson We humans have lost our connection with nature … we need to learn how to respect the earth and all its inhabitants.

    Brenda Lynne Rimensberger Thanks for sharing this Karen, I think that most people just follow blindly what they have been taught, what they know, and never question it. So if, for example they grew up on a farm and their farmer father killed baboons that is what they will do without even thinking about it. People in cities grew up being told that Vervet monkeys are vermin, because that is how they were treated a few years ago, they will still believe that and not think twice about killing them. But this applies to so many things, like whether one eats meat, what religion one follows etc.

    Mandy Hillcoat Thank you for all that you do and have done Karin. Your dedication is amazing. The entire situation is heart breaking.

    Karin Saks Darwinprimategroup Interesting post Brenda Lynne Rimensberger. We humans live in a human zoo with little capacity for freedom of thought… without much chance of questioning our conditioning forced on us since birth. That is a reality unfortunately. Thanks to the internet, we are now exposed to more truth then previously. You are so right that most simply act out on what they have been brought up with. And this is why we need to fight the machines that are creating this situation. CON- servation Legislation that allows primates and other species to be persecuted needs to change and be enforced to protect these animals. The MEDIA needs to be responsible about what is put out there for the sensationalist, negative reports about baboons only serve to instill more unnecessary fear and misunderstandings. The aspects of human society that condition the masses need to be challenged. Educating the public is all very well but when the messages sent by those in power only serves to create more damage to the environment, it makes our fight a lost cause..

    Karin Saks Darwinprimategroup It should not be the farmer who evaluates what constitutes a “problem animal” and the farmer should not be in a position whereby s/he is able to abuse the laws in a way that causes massive environmental damage as outlined by the case histories I have witnessed in this blog. A “problem” baboon should be observed first by a primate expert before being sentenced as a “problem animal”. A “problem baboon” should not be evaluated and killed by a farmer who has his own self interests/money at heart. Most baboons that are killed are entirely innocent, often lured onto farms intentionally by those who seek to kill them. I have spoken to workers in this area who lure baboons with horse food so that they have an excuse to kill them for food. I have spoken to workers in this area who claim their farm “bosses” shoot baboons then hand the bodies to their workers to eat, therefore perpetuating the notion of primates as bushmeat in this area. We should not need to fight this widespread abuse of the law.

    Carina Cunningham Webber There is no excuse, its like an adult saying well my mommy didn’t teach me manners or whatever, you grow up, you evolve, you make choices, you have a
    5 September at 07:15 · Unlike · 1
    Addi Longley-Taylor Unfortunately Carina, most people grow up and make choices but they don’t necessarily evolve…or have consciences.
    5 September at 11:04 · Like · 1
    Lynette Johnson Children learn from their parents. Yes, they do make choices as adults, but sometimes it will only take a profound experience to change their mindsets about the way they treat domestic and wild animals. Practical animal husbandry should be a compulsory subject in all primary schools to teach children how to take proper care of animals, for they will one day be the custodians of this earth we all call home …
    5 September at 19:49 · Like · 1
    Carina Cunningham Webber Frankly I don’t think people want to know……out of sight,out of mind. If they know they might have to think about it, if they think about it they might feel compelled to question it, then might be compelled to do something about it…….and well….humanity is just to self serving and do not like to inconvenience themselves.
    Yesterday at 00:08 · Unlike · 4
    Karin Saks Darwinprimategroup Changing a deeply embedded mindset – how do we do that?
    Yesterday at 06:29 · Like · 2
    Carina Cunningham Webber Well Kaz I have a very scientific and workable theory to that…….you take if the bloody head lolololololololol sharp or blunt blade doesn’t matter.
    22 hours ago · Like
    Carina Cunningham Webber Of !!!! Not if…….not a morning person
    22 hours ago · Unlike · 1
    Jane Rosenthal I have at last been able to bring myself to read this piece, Karin. Very informative and useful, if also heartbreaking. With regard to the decimation of the vervet monkey populations in the areas east of Plett, I can add that when we camped at Nature’s Valley (Groot Rivier campsite) in 1959 there were very many vervet monkeys (we had to keep all food locked in the caravan when away). I have not seen a vervet monkey at N’s V for at least two decades (walk there quite often). With regard to the hunting list I wonder if this has been taken up with government at National and provincial level. Environmental Affairs, Agricluture, Tourism…. obviously the law needs to be changed. AS for changing “deeply embedded mindset” – hard, but definitely possible. More power to your elbow (as the irish say), Karin and others working on this – and thank you.
    22 hours ago · Unlike · 5
    Karin Saks Darwinprimategroup Much appreciate your input Jane Rosenthal. This has been taken up with the DEA a few times over the last years by various primate experts. The authorities are in a difficult position as many members of the public – the agricultural sector for example- challenge our efforts to bring about change as my personal experience illustrates. However, I continue to ask: is not the environment a priority over economy driven campaigns that result in destruction to other species? Surely Nature Conservation and the DEA should not be choosing between farmers self serving actions and the environment they are meant to protect?
    22 hours ago · Like · 3
    Karin Saks Darwinprimategroup Carina Cunningham Webber – let’s inbox when you have had your coffee quota for the day:-)
    22 hours ago · Like
    Jane Rosenthal Yes, exactly, Karin. Aluta continua…
    20 hours ago · Unlike · 1
    Janey Jayne i have just finished reading the article. it has taught me alot that i did not know about the baboons and vervet monkeys. we always used to see so many of them at the toll booth on the N2, but nowadays its a happy event if you see them. such a shame this is happening to them, as i like them. i will try now to educate more people in plett when i talk to them. have a lovely weekend Karin and i hope it is peaceful, for you and for the baboons and vervet monkeys.
    20 hours ago · Unlike · 4
    Wendy Dewberry Thanks for your article Karin, and thanks for all you do. It is my opinion from experience of co-habiting happily with baboons for 5 years that education of the public regarding feeding of wild animals is the only way forward. All trouble begins with animals getting food from people, unwittingly through improper consideration or intentionally by feeding. Unfortunately the humans in this equation show lower levels of manipulating thier environment than do the baboons and vervets. So your voice out there is so very important. I hope it comes back loud and clear, very soon.
    17 hours ago · Unlike · 2
    Carina Cunningham Webber Kaz, sorry lovey, only saw your inbox thing now. Been hectic, yesterday was a bit interesting and had a lot to absorb, meetings to arrange after. Today lots of phone calls and stuff to arrange. I do love your articles by the way.
    8 hours ago · Unlike · 1

  3. Jona says:

    I know the farmer you speak of in this article. He has contacted pretty much every person in the neighborhood to spread lies about what you do.. he has told the community you feed baboons and that you release orphaned baboons into the area…………… and that those released baboons eat his grass for his cows. He is believed by those who don’t know any better. I think you should make it clear to the public that your project does not…1. Feed Baboons or release rehabilitated baboons into The Crags….

  4. Karin says:

    Thanks for that Jona. It is no surprise to me that this farmer has gone all out to discredit my information and work in a useless pretense to appear justified … that is the nature of this work…Here is the history behind this story fyi..

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